A motor starter is an electrical device by which we can start or stop any motor. Its function is very similar to that of a relay that turns the motor on and off and provides motor overvoltage and relay undervoltage protection. The main functions of a motor starter are:
The motor starter consists of two main components which are used to protect and control the motor. Electric contactor: The main function of a contactor is to turn on/off the power supply to the motor by making or breaking the contact terminals. Overload Protection Circuit: This can be identified by its name and its function. It works to isolate the main current from experiencing even the slightest motor overheating. So the motor stator and rotor are not damaged in any way.
When the induction motor is given current, the magnetic field current moving in the rotor winding and the AMF behind the produced current increase the motor torque, which leads to a higher rotor current. In the time between applying power to the motor and actually accelerating the motor to full speed, a large amount of current is drawn from the supply through the stator. The amount of starting current is 5 to 6 times that of full load. This current is only for a short time. Due to the large current flowing through the cable, the voltage drop in the system can cause damage to electrical equipment. For this reason, a certain method of starting the engine is required.
As we have already said, a starter is an electrical device used to easily start and stop the engine. The contacts are facilitated with the help of a starter so that the motor can be switched on and off. With the manual starter, we can start and stop the small motor. In this, the manual lever is manually actuated by moving the contact position and turning it on and off. The disadvantage of a manual starter is that it must be restarted in the event of a power failure. In other words, both actions are done manually. Occasionally such a position can also be caused by motor winding stress due to the high current being carried by the motor. Due to this situation, this starter is not used much. This is why other alternative motor starters with protection, such as automatic starters, are used instead. Automatic starters use electrochemical relays and contactors, which are used to turn motor operation on/off. When powered, power passes through the contactor coil and forms an electromagnetic field, which pulls or pushes the contacts to connect the motor windings to the power source. The starter uses buttons called start and stop that cause the engine to start and stop. The contactor is de-energized using the stop buttons. So the coil leads to de-energizing. Thus a spring is used between the contactor contacts so that the contactor returns to its original position and the motor stops running. Types of motor starters based on different starting techniques and methods: Various starting techniques are used to start the induction motor in industry. Before we talk about the type of motor, we will look at some of the techniques used in motor starters.
Type of motor starters:
There are many types of motor starters, but they are mainly divided into two parts, which are as follows:
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